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Monday, May 16, 2011

China Dinnerware Terms

1-Tier- Serving Tray- This term refers to trays that are used to serve appetizers & desserts. They are typically made from a dinner size plate in a particular pattern.

2-Tier Serving Tray- This term refers to trays that are used to serve appetizers & desserts. They are typically made from a dinner size plate in a particular pattern & have two levels.

3- Tiered Serving Tray- This term refers to trays that are used to serve appetizers & desserts. They are typically made from a dinner size plate in a particular pattern & has three levels.

3- Piece Place Setting- This term refers to a set of dinnerware that includes a dinner plate, salad plate & mug or a set that includes a dinner plate, salad plate & soup bowl or a set that includes dinner plate, cup & saucer or a set that includes a dinner plate, soup bowl & mug.

4- Piece Place Setting- This term refers to a set of dinnerware that includes a buffet/service plate, dinner plate, accent plate & mug.

5- Piece Completer Set- This term refers to a set that includes a sugar bowl with lid, a creamer, a medium platter & a round vegetable serving bowl.

5- Piece Place setting- This term refers to a set that includes a dinner plate, salad plate/dessert plate, bread & butter plate, teacup & saucer.

12- Piece Set- This term refers to a set that includes 4 dinner plates, 4 salad plates, & 4 mugs.

18- Piece Set- This term refers to a set that includes 6 dinner plates, 6 accent plates & 6 mugs.

20- Piece Set- This term refers to a set that includes (4)- 5 piece place settings.

50- Piece Set- This term refers to a set that includes (8)- 5 piece place settings, 8 pasta/rim soup bowls, (1) 13" platter & 1 serving bowl.

Acanthus-This term refers to a leaf pattern widely used in classical antiquity & revived in the 18th century as a ornamental motif.

Accent Plate- This term refers to a larger than a standard salad plate, generally 11" in diameter. They are used for any suitable purpose such as serving sandwiches, salads, desserts or hors d'oeuvres. They are generally designed to be more decorative so they create a contrast to the other table setting pieces. These pieces are generally sold individual, open-stock pieces.

Acid Etching- This term refers to a method of customizing a product by etching it. First, the image is transferred from a steel engraving plate with a tissue lifting. Wax resin surrounds the remaining impression, then acid is applied to the immersion & resin is removed, leaving a permanent etching.

Acid Gold- This term refers to a type of dinnerware decoration in which the design is acid-etch into the body, then painted with liquid gold which is fired on & burnished.

Acid Polishing- This term refers to a process in which gray cuttings, produced by abrasive wheel are smoothed & polished by acid immersion.

Aesthetic Movement- This term refers to the precursor of Art Nouveau, a decorative style in Great Britain & the United States that was influenced by decoration on Japanese objects. It flourished only briefly- 1870-1880.

All Purpose Bowl- This term refers to an additional bowl, not do large that it cannot serve a single serving of soup or salad. Generally a coupe shaped bowl.

 Applied Decoration- This term refers to the process in which an ornamentation, that is first created then attached to the body of the ware: on ceramics, often with slip or  liquid clay.

Arcading- This term refers to a decorative feature that takes the form of a series of rounded arches.

Armorial- This term refers to a full coat of arms or designs incorporating heraldic symbols used to decorate a ware. They are found on Chinese export & European porcelain.

Art Deco- This term refers to a modernist style that affected the decorative arts from 1920's-1930's. The name is a abbreviation form the French arts de'coratifs.

Art Nouveau- This term refers to a style, recognizable by it's flowing lines, curves & asymmetry. Flower & leaf motifs were common in this style, which flourished from 1880's- World War I.

Arts & Crafts Movement- This term refers to a period in the late 1800's- 1900's in which designers moved away from the ornate to simple decoration. During this time wares were hand-made rather than machine made. This period floundered in Great Britain after the 1900 & in the United States & Europe after World War I.

Backstamp- This term refers to the name stamp or signature of a manufacture, which usually appears on the underside of the piece. It can be a stamp, decal or incised into the piece. This mark will help identify the maker, country of orgin & help to date the piece. Backstamps are also referred to as backmarks & or pottery marks.

Bake ware- This term refers to a product that can generally withstand the heat of the oven, allowing for items to go directly from oven to table. Shapes generally include rectangular bake ware, pie plates, souffle' dishes, remekins & bowls.

Baluster- This term refers to a turned column with curving shape. This form was used in ceramics & can be seen in some early coffee pots.

Bamboo Handled Serving Trays- This term refers to trays that are used to serve appetizers & desserts. They are typically made from a salad size plate in a particular pattern, have one level & have rounded bamboo handles.

Basket Weave- This term refers to a design that resembles the weave that is used in the making of wicker baskets.

Bat Printing- This term refers to a process in which a delicate pattern is applied on top of a ceramic glaze. A design was printed on a flexible pad or sheet called a "Bat", then an oil base outline was transferred from it to the piece, & the piece was dusted with a color. This process was used during the 1700's.

Beading- This term is also referred to as "Jeweling",a term from the Victorian era, meaning raised dots or areas with designs.

Belleek- This term refers to a thin, cream-colored porcelain with a pearly glaze very popular in the Victorian era.

Biscuit or Bisque- This term is used to describe all ceramics that have been fired once, but not glazed. Biscuit porcelain was first used by the French Severs factory in the mid- 1700's. The piece was intentionally left unglazed.

Blue & White- This term refers to the most popular color combination used on ceramics. The Chinese were the first to apply cobalt blue as an under glaze on white porcelain.

Body- This term refers to the structural portion of a ceramic article, or the material or mixture from which it is made, such as in white ware.

Bonded- This term refers to products such as porcelain, in which the abrasive & a bonding agent have been intermixed & processed into a relatively inflexible body.

Bone China- This term refers to the additon of real or synthetic bone ash that is added to the body of fine Chinain order to brighten the white coloring. While bone China is often considered more durable than fine China. Modern manufacturing generally creates bodies of equal strength & durability in both bone & fine China.

Bone Dish- This term refers to a dish that is a usually crescent shape. They are frequently found in French Limoges China sets. They were used to deposit bones rather than clutter one's plate with the detritus of a completed course.

Bouillon Soup & Saucer Bowl- This term refers to a bowl that is generally smaller than a cream soup bowl & saucer set. These bowls are perfect fro serving soups that are made from thin broths.

Bread & Butter Plate- This term refers to a plate that is a component of the typical 5- piece place setting. The bread & butter plate are used for serving bread & butter pats, serving of whipped butter &/or desserts. They resemble the salad plate yet smaller ranging in size from 5" to 7" in diameter.

Breakfast Set- This term refers to a set of China comprised of a large bowl with 6 smaller bowls, usually cereal bowls, 6 bread & butter plates, 6 egg cups, a butter dish, a fruit bowl & a full tea or coffee service & a toast rack. Such settings were common place during the early part of the 1900's to the 1950's.

Bright Gold- This term refers to a liquid gold paint that, when fired, appears bright & requires no polishing.

Burnished Gold- This term refers to a more expensive gold, with a dull appearance, that must be rubbed to a shine.

Buffet/Service Plate- This term refers to an individual plate that is larger than a standard dinner plate (also known as a "chop plate"). It may be used when serving buffet-style for larger surface & volume or as a decorative accent under the dinner plate. For proper etiquette, it would be used under the soup & appetizer course, & then removed prior to placement of the dinner plate.

Butter Dishes- This term refers to dishes that are use to serve butter. They come in a variety of shapes & styles, including the quarter pound butter dish. Many China patterns feature both round & square butter dishes. These pieces are meant to be placed in the center of the table & used by all guest.

Butter Pat Dish- This term refers to dishes that are 3" in diameter or smaller, suitable for a single pat of butter. These can be mistaken for doll dishes. On occasionly they were used as coasters or ashtrays in earlier less smoking hostile periods.

Cake Stands- This term refers to stands that are used to display & serve cakes, appetizers, pies & other desserts. they are typically made from dinner plates.

Cartouche- This term refers to a type of decorative border that suggest a scrolled sheet of paper, in ceramics, it may resemble a shield & is often an oval shape. This type of boarder is often used to frame crests or coats of armor, inscriptions or some type of decoration.

Casting- This term refers to the process of pouring the "slip" into a mold to set.

Casual China- This is term used to describe any dinnerware not made from a fine or bone China body. Usually derived from earth ware or stoneware. Casual China generally creates a less formal appearance to the table & is heavier with little to no translucency.

Ceramics- This term refers to products manufactured from inorganic, nonmetallic substances, which are subjected to a high temperature during manufacture or use.

Charger- This term refers to a large dish, which is either circular or oval in shape, used for serving meat at the dining table.

Cheese Plates with Glass Domes- This term refers to pieces that are used to display & serve cheeses, appetizers & finger food. They are typically made from salad or dessert plates.

China- This term refers to a non-porous type of clay ware made of special white clay & fired at exceptionally high temperatures.

China stone- This term refers to an Ivory China with alumina (sometimes incorrectly referred to as stoneware).

Chop Plate or Round Platter- This term refers to  platters that are used to serve meats, breads, vegetables, fruits & cheese. However, they can also be used to serve cake & pies.

Cisele' Gilding- This term refers to a thickly applied gilding with patterns in it, used for decorative effects.

Clay- This term refers to a raw material, formed when rock breaks down either due to the weather or chemical processes.

Coffee Cups & Saucers-This term refers to a piece of China used to serve coffee. Coffee was originally served in a can-which was a metal cylinder with high straight sides that had a handle.The metal cylinder's measured approximately 2 1/2" high & 2 1/2" in diameter (this is where the term "can shape" cup derives from. However, there was a problem, the "metal cans" became very hot due to the hot liquid inside the metal cup, making it difficult to hold on too. In the middle 1800's the problem was solved, a new, more elegant form of the coffee can emerged using porcelain & bone china instead of metal. By using these materials, the potter's were also able to produce the cups in a variety of forms & decorative designs. The saucers at this time in history had a center depression in order to hold the cup & were referred to as a "coffee stand" rather than a "saucer". The coffee cup & saucer is the largest in the cup & saucer family, (not shown in picture). Today's average cup measures approximately 4-4 1/2" tall & the saucer measures approximately 6- 61/2" in diameter.

Coffee Pots- This term refers to pots that are generally used to serve coffee & are generally taller & more slender than a tea pots.

Compote- This term refers to a ceramic stand with a sturdy stem & a shallow dish on top, which has been used since the 1700's for serving different types of food such as sweetmeats.

Continuous Kiln- This term is also referred to as a "Tunnel Kiln", which is a long tunnel structure in which only the central part is directly heated. For example, in the gloss firing stage, the bodies are slowly transported through the entrance of the kiln where the temperature is slowly increased as it approaches the middle part of the kiln. In the middle part of the kiln the glaze fuses to the body of the porcelain. After this stage is completed the bodies move along the conveyor belt where the temperature is gradually reduce where it exits the kiln at near room temperature.

Coralene- This term refers to a decorating technique, which was popular during the Victorian era from 1850 to early 1900's. This technique was the application of tiny glass beads, which were shaped into a decorative design such as a tree, flowers, etc. & then placed in a kiln & heated. Coralene technique can be found on glass, porcelain & pottery products. When the Coralene technique was completed, the finish decoration resembled a beaded "marine coral like texture". Coralene texture items are highly prize amongst some Nippon collectors.

Coupe Cereal Bowl- This term refers to bowls that are great for everyday use. They can be used to serve a variety of cereal, soups, salads, pasta & desserts. These bowls do not feature a pronounced rim.

Coupe Shape- This term refers to a shape that does not have a pronounced rim. Coupe shaped pieces feature a concave body style that is similar in shape to a contact lens.

Coupe Soup Bowls- This term refers to a bowl, like the rimmed soup bowl & comes in a variety of sizes. these pieces are great for serving soups, salads, cereal & pastas. Like the coupe shape plates & platters, coupe soup bowls do not feature a pronounced rim.

Covered Vegetable Bowl or Tureens- This term refers to pieces that are elegant complements to any dinnerware service. Most covered vegetable bowls feature two handles & a decorative lid. These beautiful bowls can be used to serve a variety of hot & cold foods.

Crackle- This term refers to the look, reminiscent of antique China & porcelain in which the surface of the work is crisscrossed with tiny lines, a delicate tracery. This effect is achieved by applying a special glaze designed to "crackle" as it cools.

Cratering- This therm refers to when the ceramic or porcelain bodies have broken bubbles in the glazed surface. Cratering is usually associated with under firing. Some early pieces have visible cratering marks in the surface of the glaze.

Crazing- This term refers to a network of fine cracks in the surface of the clay wared glazed products caused by different rates of contraction between the clay & the glaze in some cases purposely cased during the gloss firing stage. Crazing can also occur as a consequence of poor handling procedures as a result of minimal use or subjecting the product to sudden hot & cold temperatures such as in a dishwasher.

Creamer- This term refers to pieces that are used for serving cream & flavored syrups for cups of coffee or tea. These pieces are a great addition to your tableware, dessert or tea service.

Cream Soup & Saucer Sets- This term refer to a set that is an entertainer's delight. Used for serving a variety of soups. These bowls feature two handles & a saucer. They are generally larger than a bouillon soup & saucer set. Used in conjunction with the typical 5-piece place setting, these bowls add an air of sophisticated elegance to any table.

Creamware- This term refers to a cream-colored earthware that has been covered by a lead glaze, which was developed in Staffordshire & then imported by Wedgwood. This refined product overtook the production of delftware & was in strong completion with wares from Europe, including those the German Meissen firm.

Date Code- This term refers to a letter/number code on the bottom of some pieces that identifies some unnamed pieces.

Decal- This is a term used to refer to the art of transferring designs in the form of a decorative sticker made from specially prepared paper, cloth or plastic material that has  printed on it a design/pattern which is applied by hand to either China, glass or a metal surface usually with the aid of heat or water. A decal/transfer once fired then becomes permanent feature. The word "decal" is short for "decalcomania".

Decalcomania- This term is from the French word de'calcomanie, is a decorative technique by which engravings & prints may be transferred to pottery or other materials. It was invented in England around 1750. Its invention has been attributed to Simon Francois Ravenet, an engraver from France who later moved to England & perfected the process he called "decalquer" (which means to copy by tracing). It is pronounced
"DEE-CALK". today the shortened version is called "decal".

Decal Decoration- This term is used to describe a method that is always done by hand. Decal decoration is divided into three methods of application- 1) Over glaze-this procedure is fired at 750o C to 900o C - 2)Under glaze- this procedure is fired at 700o C - 3) Sink in glaze- this - this procedure is fired at 1200o C to 1300o C.

Defaced- A term referring to "impaired" or "spoiled" appearance or surface, to disfigure, obliterate or destroy an item.

Demitasse cup & Saucers- This term is used to describe a piece of China used to server very strong coffee. The Demitasse (pronounced-"dem-i-tas"), originated in France in the 1800's. Demitasse means "half-cup", due to it typically being half the size of a full coffee cup. The purpose of the smaller half cup is for drinking stronger coffee's such as espresso, cappuccino & Turkish coffee, typically served after dinner. The Demitasse cup & saucer is the next size in the cup & saucer family (middle in the picture, also referred to as a "Demi cup" or "Child's size" cup & saucer). Today's average cup measures approximately 2-2 1/2" tall & the saucer measures approximately 4- 4 1/2" in diameter.

Delfware- This term is a name originally used for a tin-glazed earthware from the Dutch town named Delft. Tin-glaze earthware from Holland is Delfware, from great Britain, delfware.

Deutsche Blumen- This term means- German flowers. A floral decoration on ceramics bases on botanical illustrations dating from 1720's. It is found on wares from Meissen, Worcester, Bow & Chelsea firms.

Diaper Pattern- This term refers to a small repeating design of geometrical shapes, such as diamonds.

Dinner Plate- This term refers to a plate that is a component of the typical 5- piece place setting. Used for serving entre'es. Dinner plates are generally 9" to 11" in diameter & can feature either a rim or coupe (no rim) shape.

Dishwasher Safe- A term used for wares that are designed to withstand regular cleaning in an electric dishwasher under recommended guidelines.

Earthware- This term refers to a thick, opaque, porous-bodied dinnerware made from clays that cannot sustain as high a temperature as finetain as high a temperature as fine China. Earthware is generally heavier, & its porous body cannot withstand temperature extremes such as going directly from freezer to the oven. It may however be dishwasher - safe if it is fully glazed.

Ebonized- This term refers a to a process in which a wooden item, especially one made out of fruit wood, is stained black to resemble ebony. Handles on early coffee pots are often ebonized.

Embossed- This term refers to a decoration which is raised in design  or excised on the ware surface.

Enameling- This term refers to a method which is applied on top of a glaze, in order to decorate ceramics. Enamel colors are made from a powder glass & pigmented metallic oxide, including copper, gold & manganese, suspended in an oil medium.

Encaustic- This term refer to a process in which colored clays are inlaid in the surface of a ceramic body & baked, or a design is painted in wax colors & is fused to the body by heat.

Encrusted- This term referes to a process in which a design in gold, is applied in a thick layer that is slightly raised, like a crust of a pie.

En Grisaille- This term refers to a painting technique applied to ceramics, in which shades of gray are used to imitate antique stone bas-relief.

Faience- This term is French for a tin-glazed earthware. It is equivalent to the term delfware used in Great Britain.

Fake- This term refers to an item that is made to look like an original. But is made to deceive or to misrepresent as being authentic. Also referred to as "reproductions".

Famille Rose- This term refers to an opaque enamel which is in the pink family, or palette, used on Chinese porcelain from 1723. The most conspicuous color of the pink palette is rose pink.

Famille Verte- This term refers to an opaque enamel which is in the green family, or palette, used to decorate Chinese porcelain from 1661-1722. This palette was replaced by Famille Rose.

Fayence- This term refers to  tin-glazed earthware, that is used for wares from Germany & Scandinavia.

Feather Edge- This term refers to  fine, slanting lines on Creamware plates, in order to create a decorative edge.

Feldspar- This term refers to any group of hard crystalline minerals, that consist of aluminum silicates of potassium, sodium, calcium or barium.

Feuille De Choux- This term is French for "cabbage leaf", a type of decorative border typically found on porcelain pieces.

Filigree- This term refers to  lace like ornamental work of intertwined lines of gold or silver.

Fine China- This term refers to a vitreous dinnerware body, that has great translucency & strength. Which generally refers to dinnerware & gift ware. Ivory fine China refers to the hue of the China, not the materials of which it is made.

Fine Casual China- This term refers to China that was developed for the hotel & restaurant industry & for casual use in the home. Fine casual China contains aluminium, which makes the product a little bit stronger & heavier than regular China, It also contains bone ash, enabling beautiful colored designs to be expressed. Being heat resistant makes the bodies stronger, & therefore oven safe.

Firing- This term is used to describe the process of baking ceramics in a kiln.The initial firing is known as the biscuit firing, at this stage the clay paste forms into a hard substance such as porcelain, earthware or stoneware. Subsequent firing then take place to fuse on a glaze or enamel color, the number of firing depends on the type of glaze & the number of colors involved. The firing temperatures depends on the material used, but varies from 1450o F to 2200o F.

Flat Cup- This term refers to a cup design that has a flat base, without a pedestal. The cup & saucer are part of the typical 5-piece place setting. they are used for serving tea or coffees. The height & style of the cup may vary greatly between manufacturers.

Fluting- This term refers to pattern in which parallel grooves, which are semicircular in profile, run vertically up a column.

Footed Cup- This term refers to the footed cup design, which  has a small pedestal protruding from the bottom of the cup. The pedestal usually fits into the indentation in the saucer. The cup & saucer are part of the typical 5- piece place setting. They are used for serving tea or coffee. The height & style of the cup may vary greatly between manufacturers.

Footed Nut Bowls- This term refers to bowls that are used to serve nuts & candy. They are typically made from a cereal bowl or soup bowl in a particular pattern.

Footed Tidbit Trays- This term refers to trays that are used to serve appetizers & desserts. They are 1-tier & are typically made from salad plates.

Frit- This term refers to a powdered glass which is added to fine white clay, in order to make a type of soft-paste porcelain.

Fruit & Dessert Bowl- This term refers to  bowls that  are generally 4" to 6" in diameter & can be used to serve individual portions of fruit, nuts & ice cream.

Gadrooning- This term refers to a series of painted, interlocking curves, used on some European earthware borders, in order to give a three-dimensional effect.

Gilding- This term refers to a method of applying gold to an object. There are several methods of gilding. On ceramics, in what is known as honey gilding, gold leaf is mixed with honey, brushed onto the ware & fired at a low temperature. An earlier process, size gilding, did not require firing, but little of this work is left today. Mercury gilding, is a process in which ground gold is mixed with mercury & was applied to ceramic wares, this process required firing. The mercury burned off as the piece was fired. Mercury gilding was more durable than honey gilding, but was also more toxic to the manufacture.

Glaze- This term refers to a coating based on metallic oxides, such as tin or lead, which is applied to ceramics. It often has a decorative effect. On certain materials, such as earthware, a glaze is necessary to make the piece nonporous. The finish may be glossy or matte, translucent or opaque & smooth or textured.

Gold- 9 Karat- This term refers to a type of gold that has 9 parts of pure gold mixed with 15 parts of other metals, it is 37.5% pure gold.

Gold- 14 Karat- This term refers to a type of gold that has 14 parts of pure gold mixed with 10 parts of other materials. It is 58.5% pure gold.

Gold- 18 Karat- This term refers to a type of gold that has 18 parts of pure gold mixed with 5 parts of other material. It is 75% pure gold.

Gold- 24 Karat- This term refers to gold that is 100% gold- also referred to as "fine gold".

Gravy Boats- This term refer to a piece that is used for serving gravy & sauces. Gravy boats can have attached or detached underplates. Place in the center of the table, these pieces add an elegant accent to the table.

Greenware- This term refers to the unfired clay that has been molded into a shape.

Ground- This term refer to the background, or base color of a piece.

Guilloche- This term refers to a type of pattern, consisting of intertwined ribbons, worked in either a single or double band, resulting in a series of small circles.

Hairline Fracture- This term refers to a fracture in which the fragments do not separate because the line of the break partially be present. a hairline fracture my measure less than 1-inch long.

High Tea- This term refers to a fairly substantial meal, that includes tea & is served in the late afternoon or early evening.

Hollow ware- This term refers to clay ware, glass or metal pieces such as cups, pitchers, bowls- generally serving items-as opposed to flatware.

Imari- This term refers to Japanese porcelain that is decorated with a distinctive look, evoked by the pattern & palette used, in particular, red, blue & gold.

In-Glaze- This term refers to a method of decorating ceramic wares, where the decoration is applied on the surface of the glaze before the gloss is fired so that it matures simultaneously with the glaze.

Intermittent Kiln- This term refers to a kiln where the bodies are loaded into the kiln. The kiln is sealed & the internal temperature is increased according to a schedule for the particular firing cycle- like gloss firing. After the firing schedule is completed, both the kiln & wares are cooled. Intermittent kilns were used in the production of early wares prior to the 1930's.

Ivory China- This term is used to describe an ivory color, whatever material it may be. Ivory China is created in three ways. Any one of the following factors could make it ivory China - 1) Glaze - 2)Combination of materials - 3)Oxidation Firing (low temperature firing).

Jewelling- This term refers to the application of a porcelain enamel. Usually of a contrasting color, to the edge or rim of a China piece- also referred to as "Beading".

Jigging Machine- This term refers to a machine used for shaping clay bodies into round shaped products such as plates & cups.

Kiln- This term refers to an oven used to fire or bake ceramics at extreme temperatures.A temperature depends on the material used, but varies from 1450o F to 2200o F.

Knop- This term refers to a decorative piece, found on top the lids of covered dishes. A decorative knob that can be in one of innumerable shapes.

Latticework- This term refers to a pattern in which rows of crisscross clay is used in order to form an open diamond-shape area or rim.

Laub-Und-Bandelwerk- This is a German term for "leaf & strap work", often used to describe a decorative border surrounding a pictorial reserve.

Limited Edition- This term refers to a collectible, whose production is limited by a number or by a crafting deadline.

Lining- This term refers to a technique in which gold or platinum is applied to the edge of decoration of selected products like fine China or formal China tableware. The gold used normally is 14 kart, 18 kart or
22 kart. Lining is always done by hand.

Lozenge- This term refers to a diamond-shaped decoration found on ceramics.

Lugged Soup Bowl- This term refers to small soup bowl that can be used to serve a variety of hot & cold dishes, they feature a small tab-like handle.

Luncheon Plate- This term refers to a plate that is typically 8" to 9" in diameter, they come in a variety of shapes including, but not limited to: oblong, kidney shape & round. They are used for serving breakfast, lunch, sandwiches, snacks & desserts.

Luster or Lusterware- This term refers to a type of pottery or porcelain with a metallic glaze that gives the effect of iridescence, produced by metallic oxides in  an overgraze finish, which is given a second firing at a lower temperature in a reduction kiln which excludes oxygen.

Majolica- This term refers to a tin-glazed earthware made in Spain & Italy from the 1200's. Majolica wares were very popular in Great Britain & the United States in the 1800's.

Matte Finish- This term refers to a flat glaze finish without a gloss or shiny finish.

Micaceous- This term refers to , Mica is frit, glass particles that are the base component for ceramic pigments that are not ground quite as fine as a standard frit. The particles are coated in titania, this is what gives the mica its reflective qualities. The larger particles give it the rough texture. Pigments are added to this mirca base to create color variations. Micaceous colors are textural, reflective ceramic pigments.

Microwave Safe- This term refers to a dish that is able to be heated in a micowave oven. It all depends on the way the piece was decorated. All plain white bodies are considered to be safe to use in the microwave. All bodies with gold or platinum, unless otherwise indicated on the backstamp are NOT safe to use in microwave ovens.

Middle Design- This term refers to a design in which the rim is a solid color & the art work is solely displayed in the center of the piece.

Moriage Decoration- This term refers to a style of decoration used by porcelain manufactures during the late 1800's to the early 1900's. It is the art of laying "bead" of porcelain on the item prior to firing in the kiln. Most typically it was decorated later in gold. used caution when purchasing Moriage decorated pieces as the beads have a tendency to be broken off.

Monteith- This term, also known as a "Seau Crenele'", is an ornamental bowl, used for cooling & rinsing out wine glasses. The foot of the glass is suspended from the notched or scalloped rim, while the bowl sits in iced water or crushed ice.

Mugs- This term refers to pieces that are produced in order to contain coffee or a night time of tea. Mugs are also an informal alternative to the traditional cup & saucer set.

Multifunctional- This term refers to items that may be used in more than one way, creating greater options for use in the home. An example would be a "butter pat dish" that could be used as a coaster, a candle holder or candy dish.

No Rim- This term refers to a style of saucer or plate, where there is no pronounced rim.

No Trim- This term refers to the lack of gold or platinum on the exterior of the rim of the saucer or plate.

On_Glaze- This term refers to a method of decorating porcelain products. It is where the decoration is applied after it has been glazed. When the ware is fired, or re-fired in the case of twice fired ware, the colors are fuse into the glaze & so the decoration becomes more durable. Because the decorating fire can be at a lower temperature with on-glaze decoration, a more varied palette of colors is available than with underglaze decorations.

Opacity- This term refers to the property of reflecting light diffusely & non-selectively.

Open-Stock- This term refers to the ability to purchase China dinnerware items as individual pieces rather than in a place setting- for example, a single cup instead of cup & saucer sets. Many items sold in place settings are also sold open stock.

Osier- This term refers to a raised pattern on ceramics to create the effect of basket work.

Oval Platters- This term refers to larger plates that are used for serving meats, breads, vegetables, fruits & cheese. Platters come in a variety of sizes, ranging from 12" to 20".

Oval Vegetables Bowls- This term refers to bowls that are used for serving vegetables, fruits, casseroles & breads. this multi-purpose serving dish is essential for dining service.

Ovenware- This term refers to a ceramic white ware used for culinary oven use.

Overglaze- This term refers to a technique in which  the decoration is applied on top of a layer of glaze & then fired. Overglaze methods include applying one or more layers or coats of glaze on the porcelain body. Overglaze technique is less expensive than the "underglaze" technique. Overglaze products may be more subject to scratching from vigorous utensil use.

Parian Ware- This term refers to a soft porcelain or "soft paste' composed of one part China & two parts feldspar, used for making statuettes.

Piercing- This term refers to a form of decoration in which a pattern is cut out of the clay body leaving "holes".

Place Setting- This term refers to any formal configuration of merchandise sold as a package to serve one person, referring to dinnerware or flatware.

Porcelain- This term refers to a ceramic material made by heating raw materials, such as clay China, Kaolin & Feldspar in a kiln to temperatures between 1200oC -1400oC. It is during this procedure that porcelain acquires its strength & translucence like nature. Porcelain is superior to Bone China in respect to glaze hardness & is cheaper than Bone China to produce.

Progression China- This term refers to a type of dinnerware that was first produced in 1964 with marketing commencing in 1966 to the United States & other parts of the world. It was sold as "Oven-to-the-to-dishwasher-to-freezer" ware. Progression china was a heat resistant reinforced tableware, suitable for use in both gas & electric ovens & then for serving on the table. Progression China first sold with a 2-year warranty for free replacement for normal household use to customers in the United States only.

Putto- This term is the singular word for "putti", which are young undressed Cherubs/Angels that are used as a decorative motif.

Reeding- This term refers to a pattern in which parallel convex grooved ribs are formed.

Reinforced Porcelain- This term refers to ware that has a higher strength then conventional porcelain which ensured that the edges are more chip resistant. This line of ware was produced for the hotel & restaurant industry. Reinforced porcelain is achieved through a process of mixing fine powder of alumina & medium temperature firing which generates a stronger crystal formation of the hard glaze.

Relief- This term refers to a decoration that protrudes from the surrounding surface. depending on the depth of the protrusion, it may be referred to as "bas", "Medium" or "high" relief.

Relish Dishes- This term refers to dishes that are used to serve a savory condiments or appetizers, such as pickles, celery or olives.

Remarque- (Pronounced like "remark")- This term refers to an artist's mark, generally on hand-painted items, featuring a specially created icon & the artist's initials.

Reserve- This term refers to a self-contained area within a pattern left blank for another decoration, such as a coat of arms, crest, scene or flowers.

Resin- This term refers to a clear to translucent yellow or brown solid or semisolid viscous substance of plant orgin.

Restoration- This term refers to the act of making new or to repair in order to look like a new product, or to make a piece look like it did before it was damaged.

Restorer- This term refers to a skilled professional who is in the business of restoring or refinishing antiques & other damaged pieces.

Rimmed Cereal Bowls- This term refers to bowls that come in a variety of sizes & are great for serving cereal, soups, & dishes of ice cream. Rimmed cereal bowls feature a pronounced rim.

Rimmed Shapes-This term refers to a shape that typically has a flat, distinct edge that ranges in width from 1-1/2" to 2-1/2". The rim shapes are used for plates, bowls, saucers & platters. the point at which the rim ends & the center portion of the plate begins is known as the "verge line".

Rimmed Soup Bowls- This term refers to bowls that are typically used for serving soups, salads & pastas. These bowls range in size from 7" to 10" in diameter. Many manufactures substitute the rimmed soup bowl for a bread & butter plate as part of the typical 5-piece place setting.

Round Vegetable Bowl- This term refers to bowls that are used for serving vegetables, fruits, casseroles & breads. At dinner & holidays, one can never have too many serving bowls.

Salad Plate- This term refers to plates that are used for serving salads or desserts, they resemble the dinner plate, yet smaller ranging in size from 6" to 8" in diameter & are a component of the typical 5-piece place setting.

Salt & Pepper Shakers- This term refers to pieces that are used to hold table salt & pepper. These sets come in a variety of shapes & sizes. Many people collect these unique serving pieces. Generally, the salt shaker has fewer holes than the pepper shaker.

Scalloped- This term refers to a series of curves forming an ornamental design on the outer edge of saucers & plates or on the rim of cups & bowls.

Seconds- This term refers to a piece of ware in which, because of an imperfection, does not meet certain quality standards & is withheld from shipment to retailers. In Lenox China they are identified by an "L" in a circle.

Serve ware- This term refers to items that are used for serving food at the table instead of place setting pieces from which individuals eat on. Also known as "serving accessories". Most common pieces include vegetables bowls, platters, gravy boats, sugar & creamer sets, & coffee or tea pots. Additional items can include salt & pepper shakers, two-tiered servers, cake plates, butter dishes, divided servers & trays.

Sgraffito- This term refers to a pottery technique where as the surface of the unfired slip or liquid clay is scratched or scored away in design to reveal the body color underneath.

Shoulder- This terms refers to the raised rim of the plate.

Signed- This term refers to an original hand painted piece that was signed by the artist, it bears the artist signature.

Silver-Gilt- This term refers to silver covered by a layer of gold, in order to protect the ware from the corrosive effects of chemicals in certain foods.

Silica- This term refers to an abundant mineral, & a main component of dinner ware & glazes.

Sink-in-Glaze- This term refers to a technique which allows for the pigment to sink into the body of the piece.

Slip- This term refers to potter's clay that is reduced to a creamy consistency. It is used as a decorative coat on pottery or to stick external decoration to the body of the ware. It is also used with a mold to cast hollow shapes.

Silver- This term refers to Sterling silver which  is 92.5% pure silver mixed with 7.5% copper.

Smooth Edge- This term refers to the outer edge of a cup, bowl, plate or saucer that is "smooth" & is lacking scallops, latticwork, basket weave, encrusted or other designs.

Stoneware- This term refers to a hard ware made of a single light clay & fired at high temperature. It is non-porous, microwaveable, dishwasher safe & very durable, but does not have the translucency of China- also referred to as earthware.

Sugar Bowls- This term refers to bowls that are used for serving sugar & sweeteners.

Table Setting- This term refers the combination of dinnerware, flatware & crystal coordinated on a table.

Table Ware- This term refers to all of the utensils & decorative articles used on a table for a meal service.

Tapestry Technique- This term refers to a technique which involves a process using a coarse gauged fabric material which was placed in porcelain slip (liquid porcelain) & allowed to absorb/soak in the porcelain heavy bodied material. Once full absorption was achieved the artisan would ensure that fabric was evenly coated. They then affixes porcelain soaked material to the area of the object the  'Tapestry Technique" is to appear. Once the area has been shaped, the object is allowed to dry & then placed into a kiln for a bisque style of firing,(the first firing). During the firing process the fabric is incinerated leaving the fine detail of the gauze & the outline of the remainder of the objects. The object then goes to the decoration kiln & fired. It may then be followed by a glost firing depending on the function of the piece.  Tapestry technique was used during the Nippon era  on a wide range of product lines.

Tariffs- This term refers to a list or system duties imposed by government on imported goods.

Tazza- This term refer to a shallow basin with a wide bowl & single spreading foot or support.

Tea Pots- This term refers to pots that are used to serve tea. They are generally shorter than coffee pots & can be used to serve hot water or used to steep tea.

Temper-Ware- This term refers to ceramic dinnerware where alumina was added to the clays in order to make the China more durable. Temper-ware was dishwasher & microwave safe.

Throwing- This term refers to a method used to form clay manually by shaping it as it's rotated on a potter's wheel.

Transfer Painting- This term refers to a method which is similar to decal applying, but only permitting one color at a time to be applied.

Transfer Ware- This term refers to a name given to a process in which the pattern is imprinted on a piece. It involves a technique in which an engraved copper plate which has been inked & then a damp tissue are impressed under pressure. This damp tissue is then removed from the press & placed on the object to be fired. During the firing process the tissue is burnt leaving a permanent inked design on the object. Today transfer wares are mass produced using celluoid material with a printed design. Decals as they are called are applied to the object by hand & then fired in the same process resulting in a decoration which becomes a permanent part of the object.

Transitional- This term is used to describe products appropriate for a wide variety of occasions, bridging the gap between formal & casual.

Translucency- This term refers to the quality by which light passes through an object. In quality fine China, your hand will be visible through the back of the plate when held up to bright light. Translucency is  sign of verification & consequently, signifies a high-quality piece of China with strength & durability.

Trefoil- This term refers to a decorative design comprising of a flower or leaf with three lobes. A quatrefoil has for lobes.

Underglaze- This term refers to a technique of decorating porcelain products. The decoration is applied to the surface before it is glazed. The glaze will subsequently cover the decoration completely. But, because the subsequent glost firing is at a higher temperature then used in on-glaze decoration, the range of available colors is more limited. This technique was used on lines suitable for use in microwave ovens & conventional ovens. This technique had limited use & was more expensive to produce.

Verge Line- This term refers to the point at which the rim ends & the center portion of the plate begins.

Vitreous- This term means literally "Like Glass", meaning the ceramic body is non-porous (will not absorb liquids). All fine China is vitrified because its ingredients include silica, which literally turns to glass when fired at high temperatures, giving it strength. Most stoneware, porcelain & bone China is vitrified.Verified products are usually dishwasher & microwave safe. Vitrified China is also more chip-resistant & stronger.

Vitrified- This term refers to a process where the "starting" material is solid; vitrification usually involves heating the substance to a very high temperature. Many ceramic products are produced in such a manner.

White Gold- This term refers to a type of gold that consists of pure gold that is alloyed with other white metal until the final  white gold karat is reached. In the case of 18 karat white gold, palladium is used as the other alloy, & with 9 karat, silver is mostly used as the other alloy.

White Ware- This term refers to a ware that has a white or Ivory body when fired, prior to being decorated.












































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